# computer

computer. Instructions:

Complete the following problems and show ALL work!  Each problem is worth 10 points.

1. Show how the following values would be stored by byte-addressable machines with 32-bit words, using little endian and then big endian format. Assume each value starts at address 1016. Draw a diagram of memory for each, placing the appropriate values in the correct (and labeled) memory locations. a. 456789A116 b. 0000058A16 c. 1414888816

2. Convert the following expressions from infix to reverse Polish (postfix) notation. a. X * Y + W * Z + V * U b. W * X + W * (U * V + Z) c. (W * (X + Y * (U * V)))/(U * (X + Y))

3. Write the following expression in postfix (Reverse Polish) notation. Remember the rules of precedence for arithmetic operators!  X = (A-B+C*(D*E-F))/(G+H*K)

4. Convert the following expressions from reverse Polish notation to infix notation. a. W X Y Z – + * b. U V W X Y Z + * + * + c. X Y Z + V W – * Z + +

5. A nonpipelined system takes 200ns to process a task. The same task can be processed in a 5-segment pipeline with a clock cycle of 40ns. Determine the speedup ratio of the pipeline for 200 tasks. What is the maximum speedup that could be achieved with the pipeline unit over the nonpipelined unit?

6. A nonpipelined system takes 100ns to process a task. The same task can be processed in a 5-segment pipeline with a clock cycle of 20ns. Determine the speedup ratio of the pipeline for 100 tasks. What is the theoretical speedup that could be achieved with the pipeline system over a nonpipelined system?

For this homework you will be using a cache simulator called Camera which you can download at http://computerscience.jbpub.com/ecoa/2e/instructor_resources.cfm. This site also contains instructions for how to use Camera.  If you do not have a Java compiler, get the compiled classes here.  To run the software, use the command line to move to the directory where the Camera files are and type java Camera.

Camera has four features:

7. Direct Mapped Cache Simulation

8. Set Associative Cache Simulation

9. Fully Associative Cache Simulation

10. Virtual Memory and Paging Simulation

Your goal here is to use the simulators to understand these different types of memory caches. To do this, you need to run each type of simulator and document/explain what it is doing. For the three the cache simulators, you need to compare and contrast them and analyze which scheme seems to be the best. For the Memory and Paging Sim, you need to run through the tutorial and document/explain what is it doing. Provide screenshots if you need to be as thorough as possible. Also, this should be written in your own words, not quoting from any material. As part of your write up, put together a line graph or bar chart that compares the number of cache hits and caches misses for each cache simulation.

Instructions:

11. Your friend has just bought a new personal computer. She tells you that her new system  runs at 1GHz, which makes it over three times faster than her old 300 MHz system. What would you tell her? (Hint: Consider how Amdahl’s Law applies.)

12. Suppose the daytime processing load consists of 60% CPU activity and 40% disk activity. Your customers are complaining that the system is slow. After doing some research, you have learned that you can upgrade your disks for \$8,000 to make them 2.5 times as fast as they are currently. You have also learned that you can upgrade your CPU to make it 1.4 as fast for \$5,000. a. Which would you choose to yield the best performance improvement for the least amount of money? b. Which option would you choose if you don’t care about the money, but want a faster system? c. What is the break-even point for the upgrades? That is, what price would we need to charge for the CPU (or the disk – change only one) so the result was the same cost per 1% increase for both?

13. Suppose a disk drive has the following characteristics: • 5 surfaces • 1024 tracks per surface • 256 sectors per track • 512 bytes/sector • Track-to-track seek time of 8 milliseconds • Rotational speed of 7500 RPM. a. What is the capacity of the drive? b. What is the access time?

14. Suppose you have a 100GB database housed on a disk array that supports a transfer rate of 60MBps and a tape drive that supports 200GB cartridges with a transfer rate of 80MB per second. How long will it take to back up the database? What is the transfer time if 2:1 compression is possible?

Which of the types of storage architectures discussed in this section would you expect to find in a large data center or server farm? What would be the problem with using one of the other architectures in the data center environment?

computer

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