Multiple Choice Question Bank. Question 1 of 40 2.5 Points In research articles, the results of a factorial analysis of variance: A. rarely include a textual description. B. are often shown in table format only. C. are usually presented with a combination of table and textual description. D. typically give brief explanations of the underlying logic of the factorial analysis of variance. Question 2 of 40 2.5 Points Marginal means are: A. the means of one grouping variable alone. B. used to identify interaction effects. C. always reported in research articles. D. the means of both grouping variables, minus the interaction. Question 3 of 40 2.5 Points In a two-way factorial design, there can be: A. one interaction and one main effect. B. one interaction and two main effects. C. two interactions and one main effect. D. two interactions and two main effects. Question 4 of 40 2.5 Points The scenarios below are possible results of a study in which participants completed a measure of how important religion was to them personally. Participants are either from a Rural or Urban area, and are either Poor or Rich. Which of the following statements is true based on the information presented in Scenario C? A. On the average, religion is more important to rich people than to poor people. B. The column means show that religion is more important to poor people. C. The row means show that there is no difference between rich and poor in their average interest in religion. D. There is a clear interaction effect in which poor people value religion more in urban areas, while rich people value it more in rural areas. Question 5 of 40 2.5 Points In a 3 × 3 analysis of variance, the number of null hypotheses is: A. 1 B. 3 C. 6 D. 9 Question 6 of 40 2.5 Points What is the relationship between the amount of time spent shopping, Short (under 15 minutes) or Long (over 15 minutes), and the age of the shopper, Young (under 22) or Old (over 22), and the amount of money spent by shoppers in a music store. Which interpretation is consistent with Scenario A? A. More money is spent when people shop for a long time as compared with a short time. B. Younger buyers spend more money in general than older buyers. C. Less money is spent when people shop for a long time as compared with a short time. D. Older buyers spend more money in general than younger buyers. Question 7 of 40 2.5 Points A 2 × 3 factorial design has: A. two variables that divide the groups. B. six variables that divide the groups. C. three variables that divide the groups. D. five variables that divide the groups. Question 8 of 40 2.5 Points The scenarios below are possible results of a study in which participants completed a measure of how important religion was to them personally. Participants are either from a Rural or Urban area, and are either Poor or Rich. Which statement is true about Scenario B? A. There is a moderate interaction effect. B.Religion is consistently more important for rich people than for poor people, regardless of where they live. C.Religion is more important to people who live in the urban areas, regardless of their wealth. D.Religion is particularly important to people who are both poor and live in rural areas. Question 9 of 40 2.5 Points In a two-way analysis of variance, what is the population variance estimate for the denominator of the F ratios for the main and interaction effects? A. All effects are tested using the same estimate based on averaging the estimates of the variance of scores within each cell. B. Each effect is tested using a variance estimate based on the variation within the appropriate groupings. C. Each effect is tested using a variance estimate based on the variation among the appropriate marginal means. D. The row and column effects are tested using an estimate based on the variation within the appropriate groupings, but the interaction effect is tested based on averaging the estimates based on variance of scores within each cell. Question 10 of 40 2.5 Points What is the relationship between the amount of time spent shopping, Short (under 15 minutes) or Long (over 15 minutes), and the age of the shopper, Young (under 22) or Old (over 22), and the amount of money spent by shoppers in a music store. Which interpretation is MOST consistent with the interaction effect in Scenario B? A. If there is only a short time to shop, age makes no difference, but if there is a long time to shop, younger buyers spend more money than older buyers. B. Younger buyers spend more money in general than older buyers. C. More money is spent when people shop for a long time as compared with a short time. D. None, because there is no interaction effect. Question 11 of 40 2.5 Points If an experimenter “crosses Intelligence with Attractiveness” in a factorial design in which intelligence has three levels (high, medium, and low) and attractiveness has two levels (high and low), the study will: A. be a three-way analysis of variance. B. be a 3 × 2 analysis of variance. C. have eight cells to the third power. D. have five cells. Question 12 of 40 2.5 Points A repeated measures analysis of variance is to an ordinary analysis of variance as a t test for dependent means is to: A.a t test for a single sample. B.a t test for independent means. C.a two-way analysis of variance. D.any factorial analysis of variance. Question 13 of 40 2.5 Points In a 2 × 2 analysis of variance, the basis for estimating the numerator of the F ratio for the column effects is: A. the variance among the four cell means. B. the variance between the two column marginal means. C. the variance between the two row marginal means. D. the variance between the means of the two diagonals. Question 14 of 40 2.5 Points What is the relationship between the amount of time spent shopping, Short (under 15 minutes) or Long (over 15 minutes), and the age of the shopper, Young (under 22) or Old (over 22), and the amount of money spent by shoppers in a music store. Which interpretation is MOST consistent with Scenario C? A. Length of time makes no difference in the amount of money spent. B. Age makes no difference in the amount of money spent. C. Younger buyers spend more money when they shop for a shorter time whereas older buyers spend more money when they shop for a longer time. D. Neither age nor length of time makes a difference in amount of money spent. Question 15 of 40 2.5 Points The scenarios below are possible results of a study in which participants completed a measure of how important religion was to them personally. Participants are either from a Rural or Urban area, and are either Poor or Rich. A sociologist said, “As far as how important religion is to people, it doesn’t matter where they live. What matters is how much money they make.” If this conclusion was based on one of these scenarios, which scenario was being considered? A. Scenario A B. Scenario B C. Scenario C D. None of the above Question 16 of 40 2.5 Points When considering the power of a main effect in a factorial analysis of variance, all of the following must be taken into account EXCEPT: A. the number of scores per cell. B. the number of levels of the other grouping variable. C. the predicted effect size for this main effect. D. the predicted effect size for the other grouping variable. Question 17 of 40 2.5 Points An interaction effect can be identified by: A. looking at the pattern of cell means. B. conducting a series of t tests. C.dividing each cell mean by its marginal mean. D.dividing each cell mean by a weighted marginal mean. Question 18 of 40 2.5 Points In a factorial design, a “cell” is: A. each combination of levels of the variables that divide the groups. B. the combination of different levels of one variable that divides the groups, ignoring any other variables that divide the groups. C. a study with a single two-level variable that divides the groups. D. the same thing as a “main effect.” Question 19 of 40 2.5 Points What is the relationship between the amount of time spent shopping, Short (under 15 minutes) or Long (over 15 minutes), and the age of the shopper, Young (under 22) or Old (over 22), and the amount of money spent by shoppers in a music store. A store manager said, “How much money people spend isn’t related to age. All that matters is how long they shop.” If she said that after seeing the results of one of these studies, which scenario was she probably looking at? A. Scenario A B. Scenario B C. Scenario C D. None of the above Question 20 of 40 2.5 Points An interaction effect in a two-way factorial design: A. is the effect of one variable that divides the groups, ignoring the influence of the other variable that divides the groups. B. occurs when the influence of one variable that divides the groups changes according to the level of the other variable that divides the groups. C. almost never occurs when more than one variable that divides the groups is considered at a time. D. is rare in a well-designed study, and usually indicates some error in computation. Question 21 of 40 2.5 Points Which of the following is true about hypothesis testing for a linear prediction rule? A. If the correlation coefficient is significant, the regression coefficient will be significant. B. If the correlation coefficient is significant, the standardized regression coefficient will be significant, but the unstandardized (ordinary) regression coefficient will not. C. The t test for the correlation coefficient tests the significance of the regression constant. D. The t test for the correlation coefficient tests the significance of both the regression constant and the regression coefficient. Question 22 of 40 2.5 Points The multiple regression formula with two predictor variables is: A. Ŷ = a + (b 1/X 1) + (b 2/X 2). B. Ŷ = a 1 + a 2 + (b 1/X 1) + (b 2/X 2). C. Ŷ = a + (b 1)(X 1) + (b 2)(X 2). D. Ŷ = a 1 + a 2 + (b 1)(X 1) + (b 2)(X 2). Question 23 of 40 2.5 Points The statistical procedure used to make predictions about people’s poetic ability based on their scores on a general writing ability test and their scores on a creativity test is: A. ridge regression. B. multiple regression. C. bivariate regression. D. proportion of variance accounted for. Question 24 of 40 2.5 Points When conducting a t test for the correlation coefficient in a study with 16 individuals, the degrees of freedom will be: A. 14 B. 15 C. 30 D. 31 Question 25 of 40 2.5 Points A study indicates that in general the more fruit students eat before a test, the better they do on the test. However, beyond a certain point, the more fruit students eat, the worse they do on the test. Thus, the relation between amount of fruit eaten and test performance is an example of: A. a positive linear correlation. B. a curvilinear correlation. C. a negative linear correlation. D. no correlation. Question 26 of 40 2.5 Points When figuring a correlation coefficient, an outlier: A. usually has only a small effect on the computed correlation. B. can have a strong effect on the computed correlation. C. generally increases the statistical power of the study. D. can be balanced by the effects of attenuation. Question 27 of 40 2.5 Points In psychology research articles: A. linear prediction rules are usually presented for bivariate but not multiple regression. B. when results for bivariate prediction are reported, it is most likely to be with regression lines. C. if multiple regression results are reported, the bivariate correlations will usually not be reported. D. if a standardized regression coefficient (β) is reported, the bivariate correlation (r) will almost always be reported as well. Question 28 of 40 2.5 Points A regression line: A. is drawn on a graph in which scores for the predicted variable are on the horizontal axis. B. is rarely a straight line. C. can be shown on a bar graph. D. shows the relation between values of the predictor and criterion variables. Question 29 of 40 2.5 Points In a linear prediction rule using a standardized regression coefficient: A. the regression constant is always equal to 1. B. for each increase of one standard deviation in the predictor variable, the predicted standard deviation of the criterion variable increases by the standardized regression coefficient. C. the predicted value for the criterion variable is a t score. D. for each increase of one standard deviation in the predicted variable, the predicted standard deviation of the predictor variable increases by the standardized regression coefficient. Question 30 of 40 2.5 Points When drawing a regression line for a linear prediction rule, the minimum number of predicted points on a graph that must be located is: A. 1. B. 2. C. 1 if it is a positively sloped line; 2 if it is a negatively sloped line. D. 2 if it is a positively sloped line; 1 if it is a negatively sloped line. Question 31 of 40 2.5 Points On a scatter diagram, the vertical distance between the dot for the actual score and the regression line represents the: A. slope. B. regression constant. C. squared error. D. error. Question 32 of 40 2.5 Points When figuring a correlation coefficient, scores are first converted to Z scores because: A. the standard deviation is the same for every variable. B. scores can never be more than 2 standard deviations from the mean. C. all scores are on a consistent 0 to 1 scale. D. high scores are positive numbers, and low scores are negative numbers. Question 33 of 40 2.5 Points Which of the following calculations is necessary for figuring the correlation coefficient? A. Finding the grand mean B. Finding the cross-products of each person’s X and Y raw scores C. Finding the means of X and Y D. Finding the difference between each person’s X and Y raw scores Question 34 of 40 2.5 Points A graph that shows the pattern of the relation of two variables is a: A. histogram. B. scatter diagram. C. frequency polygon. D. box plot. Question 35 of 40 2.5 Points The BEST linear prediction rule is the one that has the least: A. error when predicting from the mean. B. squared error when predicting from the mean. C. error when predicting using that rule. D. squared error when predicting using that rule. Question 36 of 40 2.5 Points The situation in which you figure a correlation but only a limited range of the possible values on one of the variables is included in the group studied is called: A. restriction in range. B. attenuation. C. proportionate reduction in error. D. unreliable measurement. Question 37 of 40 2.5 Points When is it inappropriate to conduct a t test for the correlation coefficient? A. When the correlation is negative B. When the correlation is positive C. When the relationship is linear D. When the relationship is nonlinear Question 38 of 40 2.5 Points The average of the cross-products of Z scores is a better indicator of the relationship between two variables than the sum of the cross-products of Z scores because the average: A. appropriately measures the strength of the relationship whereas the sum does not. B. appropriately measures the direction of the relationship whereas the sum does not. C. is converted to a standard scale from -10 to +10 whereas the sum is not. D. is formed using a combination of the two variables’ measurement scales whereas the sum is not. Question 39 of 40 2.5 Points If a child psychologist reports that age in months predicts appetite level for a group of infants using a linear prediction rule in which a = 1 and b = 2, the appetite level for a four-month-old infant is: A. 4 B. 8 C. 9 D. 12 Question 40 of 40 2.5 Points Error in regression is figured by: A. Y – X. B. Y – Ŷ. C. Y – b. D. Y – a.